According to the 2011 Census, 19 per cent of people aged three and over in Wales were able to speak Welsh (562,000 people). This was a decrease since the 2001 Census, when 20.8 per cent of people aged three and over were able to speak Welsh (582,000 people).
According to the 2011 Census, the percentage able to speak Welsh varied by age group, from 42.2 per cent at its highest for children aged 10 to 14, to 13 per cent at its lowest for people aged 45 to 49.
The percentage of people aged three and over able to speak Welsh also varied by local authority. Gwynedd, Isle of Anglesey, Ceredigion and Carmarthenshire had the highest percentages of Welsh speakers. Blaenau Gwent, Merthyr Tydfil and Newport had the lowest percentages of Welsh speakers.
Of those aged three and over, 14.6 per cent were able to speak, read and write Welsh in 2011.
The Welsh Language Use Surveys provide more detailed information about Welsh speakers’ fluency, and their use of Welsh in a range of settings. According to the Welsh Language Use Survey 2013-15, 11 per cent of all people aged three and over living in Wales could speak Welsh fluently (around 319,000 people). 13 per cent of all people aged three and over spoke Welsh daily (around 361,000 people).
According to the Pupil-Level Annual School Census 2017, almost a third of primary, middle and secondary schools in Wales were Welsh medium schools (almost 480 schools) with over one in five pupils attending these schools (almost 106,000 pupils).